She has given multiple framed stories in this novel. By explicitly making the narrator a character within the frame story, the writer distances him or herself from the narrator; she or he may also characterize the narrator to cast doubt on the narrator's truthfulness. Lewis Carroll 's Alice stories Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass includes such a frame, but unlike most usages, the stories themselves use dream-like logic and sequences; most dream frames frame stories that appear exactly as if occurring in real life.
Modern Literature Examples The main story of Vladimir Nabokov's "Lolita" is convicted murderer Humbert Humbert writing his memoirs in prison of his obsession with year-old Dolores Haze and how it led to his undoing.
In this mode, the frame tale can become more fuzzy. At the beginning of the movie Far and Awaythe father "dies" and then returns to life briefly. Point of view is also a crucial concept, as many characters tell the embedded narrative retrospectively and relate it to current events in their lives.
Frame story leads the readers from the first story to the other one. This could most simply be a recurrence or restatement of a melody or song. In medieval Europe, this was a common device, used to indicate that the events included are fictional; Geoffrey Chaucer used it in The Book of the DuchessThe House of FameParlement of Foulesand The Legend of Good Women the last also containing a multi-story frame story within the dream.
Example 3: Titanic by James Cameron In the movie, Titanic, an elderly woman Rose begins the movie by telling a story of her voyage in the Atlantic Ocean. It also offers multiple perspectives to the readers within a story, as well as about the story.
This format had flexibility in that various narrators could retain the stories they liked or understood, while dropping ones they didn't and adding new ones they heard from other places.